Holy Books of Muslims
These tenets of faith are fixed in the Holy Book of Islam, mentioned earlier — the Koran (from the Arab. "al-Quran" — "reading aloud"). Muhammad himself, receiving God's revelations, transmitted them orally.
After his death, all these messages were recorded by those who personally heard them from the Prophet himself.
The Quran is written in Arabic in a special rhymed prose, in verse. It consists of 114 chapters, which are called surahs (Arabic. "row", "rank"). Surahs, in turn, are divided into verses — verses (Arabic. "sign", "miracle")..
Because Muslims believe that everything written in the Quran is not a product of human creativity, but the words of the God, then this book is treated not as a source of information, but as an object of religious worship. That is why, for many centuries of the existence of Islam, the Koran was forbidden to be translated into national languages, since translation is a distortion of the word of God.
It should be noted that the Koran is not only a book of religious content and a Muslim shrine, but also a magnificent example of Arabic literature — a monument of world literature.
An example of a hadith:
"Fear Allah, wherever you are, and let every bad act of yours be followed by a good one that will make up for the previous one, and treat people well!".
Sharia. The Five Pillars of Islam
On the basis of the Koran and the Sunnah, legal norms regulating all aspects of a Muslim's life were developed in the countries of Islam, which were called sharia (literally, "deep knowledge"). It regulates not only the rules of the hostel in the ummah (Muslim community) and the degree of responsibility for certain actions, but also the personal attitudes (motives and goals of actions) of each believer, following which can become a kind of "road" to paradise.
For example, it is desirable for a man to have one wife, but polygamy is not prohibited (the Koran legalizes the presence of four wives), if a man is able to provide for all of them, and will treat everyone equally.
The most recommended food for a Muslim is honey and milk. It is not recommended, but it is not prohibited to eat horse meat, as well as garlic and onions. A follower of Islam can only eat pork under the threat of starvation.
Sharia categorically prohibits gambling, smoking, the use of alcoholic beverages, drugs, etc.
In addition to moral and legal prescriptions, Sharia approved certain duties for all professing Islam, forming the basis of faith, which were called the five pillars of Islam.:
1. Shahada — "testimony of faith" is a phrase that contains the essence of Islam as a religion and which every believer should know by heart: "La ilaha illa-l-lahu wa Muhammadun Rasulu-l-lahi" ("There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is His Messenger"). The shahadah contains two most important dogmas of faith: the recognition of monotheism (tawhid) and the prophetic mission of Muhammad. Since the shahada served as a battle cry in the Muslim army, the soldiers who fought under the banners of Islam were called shahids.
2. Salat (Arabic). or Namaz (Persian) is a daily five—fold prayer. It takes place at a certain time of day, according to the position of the sun in the sky. When performing namaz, there is a special ritual - a certain sequence of movements, inclines and verbal formulas that a believer must adhere to. According to Sharia, prayer cannot be performed without taking a ritual ablution, since Islam pays special attention not only to the spiritual, but also to the physical purity of a person and is sensitive to personal hygiene issues.
3. Zakat is a mandatory tax paid by Muslims in favor of the poor and needy. It is charged only from adults once a year in the amount of 2.5% of any income or 10% of agricultural products (harvest). In addition, Muslims are encouraged to make sadaqah — voluntary (optional) donations in favor of the poor and the state.
4. Saum (Arabic) or Uraza (Persian) is a fast that every Muslim must observe during the holy month of Ramadan. It consists in refusing to eat and drink, as well as abstaining from any entertainment and pleasures during the daytime (from dawn to dusk). After dark, these prohibitions are lifted, but believers are not recommended to indulge in excesses, this time should be spent in meditation, prayer and reading the Koran.
5. Hajj is a pilgrimage to Mecca, which every believer must perform at least once in his life (provided that his state of health and material capabilities allow him to do so). If a person cannot perform the Hajj himself, then it is allowed to send a "substitute" in his place with payment of all his expenses.
Hajj takes place at a certain time of the year (in the month of zu-l-hijjah) for several days, when it is prescribed to perform a number of ritual actions and rituals sanctified by tradition. Among them: dressing in white clothes (ihram rite), prayer at Mount Arafat, throwing stones at a pillar symbolizing the devil in the Mina Valley, animal sacrifice, drinking water and washing from the Zamzam well, a seven-time circumambulation of the Kaaba, a run between the Safa and Marva hills. Those who have performed all these rituals receive the right to wear a white turban and the honorary title of hajj.
The concept of jihad ("effort") is also important in Islam — the struggle for faith. Representatives of various faiths and trends of Islam interpret it in different ways: from armed struggle and waging war against infidels (non-Muslims) to constant and tireless work on self-improvement of their own personality and elimination of any vices in themselves that are condemned by Islam.
The main currents of Islam
It remains to add that Islam has not formed the same structured organization that controls matters of faith and the actions of believers, similar to the Christian church. Therefore, literally immediately after the death of the Prophet, Islam began to split into various branches and directions, from which three main denominations stand out today: Sunnis (about 80% of all Muslims in the world adhere to it), Shiites and Sufis. The most aggressive are Wahhabis, most of them are in Saudi Arabia, it is forbidden even to import crosses, the gospel, etc., they say that they were created and sponsored by English immigrants.
В заключение параграфа следует отметить, что ислам (как и другие мировые религии) не одобряет неоправданного применения силы по отношению к иноверцам или атеистам, выступает против национальных и этнических распрей, учит, что для Бога важна не расовая, этническая или племенная принадлежность человека, а его внутренний мир и морально-этические жизненные установки.
Пророк Мухаммад говорил: «Нет разницы между арабом и неарабом, между белым и черным, и люди равны между собой как зубцы гребня». В Коране же написано от лица Аллаха: «Воистину, Мы создали вас мужчинами и женщинами, сделали вас народами и племенами, чтобы вы знали друг друга [творили друг другу добро]. Ведь самый благородный из вас перед Аллахом — наиболее благочестивый». Таким образом, важно не только во что и как ты веришь, а какой ты человек, каковы твои мысли и поступки по отношению к себе и окружающим.