Jewish Hall (Second floor)
What do we know about Jews and their faith? The religion of the Jews, they honor the Sabbath, all men have undergone the rite of circumcision, wear a kippah, some wear funny pigtails on their temples, and strange squares on their foreheads, study the Torah, cry at the wailing wall, their ancestors crucified Christ, and in a strange way the traitor of Christ was called Judas, just like all of them Jews, that They had Moses, who brought them out of Egypt and for some reason led them through the desert for 40 years.
Few people know that Christianity came out of Judaism, that our Bible is based on the Jewish Holy Scripture Tanakh, and the Torah is a part of the Bible, its first 5 books, the Book of Genesis or the Pentateuch, the core from which several religious traditions originate at once. The events described in the Torah are reproduced in the Koran, Islam also inherits the content of the Torah.
What are the differences then?
The Torah says that we must wait for the coming of the son of God – the Savior, and in the Bible he came in the person of Christ. Moses wrote the Torah while he was walking for 40 years, but this is one of the versions, perhaps its author is Joshua. The fate of Moses is very interesting. Being a Jewish child, even in infancy he got into the family of an Egyptian princess (presumably a woman- Pharaoh Tatshepsut), where he receives education. But God called Moses and he left Egypt. Perhaps Moses is an Egyptian priest. First, Moses on Mount Sinai received from God tablets with 10 commandments carved on them.
The Jews believe that man is created in the likeness of God and the task of this life is to educate ourselves in order to get closer to Him, and Christianity believes that we are sinful by nature with the original sin of Adam.
Judaism (other Greek. from the name of the tribe of Judah, which gave the name to the Kingdom of Judah) is the religion of the Jewish people, the oldest of the three main monotheistic religions of mankind. Judaism is also called the Jewish religion. In Hebrew, the terms "Judaism" and "Jewry" are synonyms.
Sources of modern Judaism: Tanakh (written Torah) and Talmud (oral Torah). The Torah is also called the Mosaic Pentateuch, as it contains five books that Moses received from the Lord God on Mount Sinai.
The most famous symbols of Judaism are the six—pointed Star of David and the Menorah (seven-candle).
The Tanakh is called the Hebrew Bible, describing the creation of the world and man.
The Talmud is a collection of laws.
The doctrine, ethics, customs and social aspects of Judaism are set forth in the Torah.
Judaism attaches more importance to behavior than to religion. However, there are fundamental principles that all Jews share — this is the belief in the only real God to whom every person can turn. God is a spirit, an absolute being. God is the Creator of all things at all times, he is a constant Force, he is universal, he rules the whole world.
Think well, and it will be fine!
God has established not only natural law, but also the laws of morality. God gives eternal life. He is All-good, Most Holy, Just. God is man's helper. He is the Savior, the deliverer from sins and vices — pride, selfishness, hatred and lust. God himself is the creator of both light and darkness. In the fight against evil, the Jew is supported by his faith in God. According to Judaism, man is created "in the image and likeness of God," and everyone is responsible to God himself. Everything is predetermined by God, but at the same time a person has the freedom of will to make a moral choice. Judaism recognizes the immortality of the human soul and believes that all people, regardless of religion and nationality, are equally children of God.
The knowledge of God in Judaism implies the knowledge that God rules the world and man should strive to follow the right path that God has opened for people.
The Jews believe that at a certain time the dead will be revived in the flesh and will live again on earth. "And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth will awaken, some to eternal life, others to eternal reproach and shame" (Dan. 12:2). In order to find salvation, for "the righteous of all nations will find their inheritance in the world to come," it is required to fulfill the commandments of the sons of Noah, namely:
- renounce idolatry;
- abstain from incest and adultery;
- don't spill blood;
- don't take God's name in vain;
- not to do injustice and lawlessness;
- don't steal;
- do not cut off parts from a live animal.
Judaism opposes asceticism and is optimistic about the future of this world, where God invites us to establish his kingdom. Jews believe that God has chosen the Jewish people from all the peoples of the world to play a central role in the salvation of mankind by accepting Revelation. And thanks to the consciousness of being chosen, the Jewish people were able to survive in conditions when they lost their national and political identity more than once.
Judaism pays great attention to rituals, which are considered a way of survival of the people and the preservation of faith.
Prayer is a mandatory daily ritual of a Jew. It is preferable to pray in a synagogue, since public prayer is more effective. Food bans are considered part of a special code of sanctity. The rite of circumcision of the foreskin is a contract with God marked with a sign on the body.
The main commandment is "Love your neighbor as yourself," since all are children of God. This is the Jewish concept of human brotherhood under the rule of one God.
Treat people the way you would like to be treated!
Do not judge, and you will not be judged!
The star of David is hexagonal. Just as Saturn has a hexagon at its pole, Saturn is also the ruler of the Sabbath and is the planet responsible for the trials in our life, its karma.
What similarities and differences do Judaism and Christianity have?
Jews is an ethno-religious term. They denote adherents of Judaism and all those who are Jewish by their mother. In ancient times, this was how the Israelites from the family of Judah were designated.
The center of the religious life of the ancient Jews was the Jerusalem Temple. It was destroyed in the 1st century AD during the suppression of the uprising of the Jews against the Roman government.
Issues such as marriage, divorce, and death are handled only by religious institutions. The holy Sabbath day for Jews in Israel is a weekend.
The interpreters of Jewish law and the heads of communities are called rabbis. Jewish prayer meetings are called synagogues. The symbol of Judaism in recent centuries is the six-pointed Star of David. Since ancient times, the Menorah symbol has been used – a seven-candlestick from the destroyed Jerusalem temple.
The Tanakh is the holy book of Judaism, mainly corresponding to the Christian Old Testament, and also became the basis for the birth of Islam. It tells about the creation of the world and people by the Almighty, about the Divine law, as well as about the fate of the God-chosen Jewish people.
The main signs of the appearance of the Messiah are the advent of peace and universal brotherhood and the cessation of violence.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (God the father, God the son and the Holy Spirit) allegedly contradicts the revelation of the Old Testament about the One God.
These religions have a common Old Testament foundation.
The Savior and the apostles were Jews by birth and upbringing. Christianity was perceived by other Jews as one of the Jewish sects.
These religions are monotheistic. They teach about the one God who created man in his own image and likeness. The Almighty is not only the Creator, but also a loving and helping Father for people.
Jews and Christians also believe in a universal resurrection of the dead at the end of time.
The Jewish origins have the Sacraments of Baptism and the Eucharist. So, the Jews have since ancient times there is a ritual purification by washing, called twila. The Eucharist also includes such traditional Jewish elements as the breaking of bread and a cup of wine. They are used in the celebration of the Jewish Passover (the day of remembrance of the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt). The sacrament of the Eucharist was established by Jesus at a festive dinner with the apostles (the Last Supper), which took place precisely on the occasion of Passover Day.
What is the difference between Christianity and Judaism? The Jews consider themselves a God–chosen nation, which has a sacred mission - to teach divine truths to all other nations. Jews believe in the coming of the Messiah, that is, the Messiah, God's anointed from the family of King David. It is believed that he will morally revive humanity, free the Jewish people from the power of the Gentiles and establish his great kingdom for the benefit of the whole world.
Christianity stands on the fact that the Old Testament prophecies about the coming of the Savior have already been fulfilled. Immaculately conceived by the Holy Spirit and born of the Virgin Mary, the God-man Jesus Christ redeemed the sins of mankind by his sacrifice and ascended to God the Father. The Jews did not recognize Jesus as the Messiah and are still waiting for the arrival of God's anointed one.
Christianity teaches that we are all born with the seal of original sin and are cleansed from it by Christ.
Christianity claims that one can come to God only by following Christ. According to Judaism, a person can independently approach God.
The only thing that can save him, they say, is a state of extreme frustration with material life, the carrier of sinfulness, as well as complete dependence on G-d. The Jews are convinced that a person can approach G-d by FULFILLING His commandments and obeying His will. But at the same time remaining the one who has the freedom of choice.
Judaism claims that man is created "in the image and likeness of G-d." Therefore, he can easily find divine qualities in himself and in the people around him. By fulfilling the commandments, we thereby, as it were, allow a divine spark to ignite in us. The Jew strives not to miss this opportunity.
At the same time, the original postulate of Christianity tries to convince us of the original sinfulness and inferiority of man. Being alone with oneself, a person is doomed to a complete curse. His nature is drawn to evil, so he must do something to save himself.
"What have you done to save yourself?" This is the first question of Christianity. To a Jew , such a statement of the question presents
Although all of Jesus' disciples were Jews, they failed to convince their fellow tribesmen of the correctness of the new religious doctrine.
Any Jew has always known that the Torah gave him a unique connection with G-d. Everything he discovered in Christianity interfered with this connection, contradicted its essence.
Instead of going after the long-awaited Messiah, they crucified Him.
Formally, the final break between Judaism and Christianity was recorded at the First Council of Nicaea in 325.